Monday, January 26, 2004
1/26/04 Email from Irv:


Classes in all first year sections will begin at 9:15 on Saturday. They will resume at 1:45 and conclude at 4:45. As you know, the 4:45 departure time is no different than United Airlines. My morning and afternoon classes are at 1815 Chicago Avenue, room 204. The building is one building south of Alice Millar Chapel at the corner of Sheridan Road and Chicago. There is a sign on the front lawn of the building which says Department of Communication Studies and MSC. There is plenty of parking in the rear of the building.

Please come to class with a 5 minute extemporaneous speech on an image. The speech will also include one visual aid. If you have any further questions, let me know.

Irving J. Rein
Professor of Communication Studies
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois USA
Wednesday, January 21, 2004
Transcript of the State of the Union Address:
Tuesday, January 20, 2004
1/20/04 Email from Irv:

There are a number of issues that you might want to be thinking about in finishing round 1 and beginning to think about what you are going to do in round 2. The second round is an image speech and your task is to analyze an image - which is shorthand for a cluster of attributes - it means that it is a distilled version of a corporation, a person, or a place. You should be thinking about what your topic is going to be for the next round and be prepared to tell us about it on Friday. The task in the speech is obviously going to be analyze the image - how it is portrayed and ultimately delivered to an audience. You might want to begin collecting data for that speech now.

In looking at the first half of the first round, there are certain issues that need attention.
1. Most speakers had too much information for a four minute speech.
2. There was more description than analysis. That is a general issue for the entire quarter since we emphasize taking apart an issue rather than simply describing it.
3. There are topoi that can help make your speech more interesting and vital to your audience.
A. Make sure your topic is inherently interesting, researchable, and one in which you are committed to.
B. Use internal strategies to involve the audience and to make them feel comfortable with your material - use dialogue instead of just narrative - humor instead of just narrative - don't be afraid to use repetition in terms of language and style to create interest.
4. There were problems throughout the speeches with introductions. A 1:30 introduction for a 4 minute speech is simply too long. It's important that your speech has a purpose, orients us to the key ideas in the speech, and provides some sort of frame so that we can listen to it.
5. The question of audience centeredness is a critical issue for most speakers. Audience centeredness is not a trick that you learn but rather a psychological process that you undergo. It means that you lose your self-consciousness about your speaking and become centered in how well your audience is receiving your message. It helps if you ask questions, use names of audience members, move around the room a little for variety, and maintain real contact by engaging the audience. Becoming audience centered involves your taking some risk and breaking that fourth wall between you and your audience.

Finally, I advise you to begin reading as much material from the class as you can. In addition, because the Democratic candidates are getting a lot of coverage right now and they are usually speaking extemporaneously, they are good models for viewing and tips. Tonight George Bush is delivering the State of the Union and I can assure you that I will be making remarks about his delivery and content in class. In other words, watching models outside of class can help sharpen your speeches inside.

Irving J. Rein
Professor of Communication Studies
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois USA
Wednesday, January 14, 2004
Jerry Rice was kind enough to share his outline from '03 with us:

Jerry Rice
“Viewing the Public” 4 minutes
Professor Irving J. Rein

Attention Statement: If you are like me, the most difficult part of this speech- besides the delivery- was finding a public address to observe that worked well for both analyzing and spending 4 minutes talking about in front of your classmates. After quite a bit of searching, I ran across an on-campus public appearance by Mel Sembler, a 1952 graduate of the School of Communication and the United States Ambassador to Italy.

The ambassador’s speech was surprisingly good, capturing the attention and interest of the audience in a way I have not seen in a live public speech. To discuss why this speech was effective, I will focus on three key areas that the ambassador really scored points with the audience:

I. Building audience rapport
II. Informative speech with subtle persuasion
III. Brevity followed by Q & A


I. Sembler showed remarkable prowess at building audience rapport. He:

A. Used the obvious Northwestern connection
1. Sincere nostalgic feeling about return to campus (choked up)
2. Changes on campus
3. Talked about being on stage during Northwestern’s Centennial year.

II. Ambassador’s speech was mostly informative, but embedded with subtle persuasion

A. Initially informative tone
1. Discussed his life as a business man.
a. owns/operates over 200 shopping centers throughout country
b. founded drug treatment center- over 12,000 graduates of the rehab program
c. national finance chairman for Republican party
2. Discussed role as U.S. Ambassador to Italy
a. responsible for over 750 govt. employees on Italian soil
b. includes INS, IRS, customs, FBI, and more
c. advance trade opportunities with Italy

B. Embedded within the information were subtle persuasive remarks
1. Italy as U.S. ally
a. used strong language and examples when discussing U.S./Italy relationship
b. Described Italy as strong, dependable, reliable, close ally…seemed very sincere, paused as if searching for stronger words to enforce this thought
c. Related story about how Berlusconi traveled to U.S. on Memorial Day to honor the fallen soldiers of WWII with Pres. Bush even though he had 19 heads of state traveling to Italy for a conference the very next day.
2. NU as great educational opportunity
a. NU prepares you to be a leader
b. NU is respected throughout the world as a leading educational institution
c. Hopes that the audience will support Northwestern as he and his wife have throughout the years.

III. Brevity of prepared remarks allowed ample time for audience Q & A, leading to further rapport with audience

A. Billed as an hour-long speech, from 6-7 p.m.
1. Spoke for only 25 minutes, following a 5 minute introduction by President Bienen
2. Allowed 30 minutes for audience Q & A
3. Fielded questions in a manner that reinforced his persuasive points about the relationship between Italy and the U.S.
a. Q: Is now a good time for U.S. students to study abroad in Italy?
b. A: Absolutely. Italy and the U.S. have a fantastic relationship right now. They have given nothing but sympathy and support since September 11th
4. Q & A allowed audience to connect with the speaker and feel like a part of the program


I. Outstanding job of building rapport with audience. Methods described in Hasling’s text- humorous anecdote and reference to the occasion.
II. He kept an informative feel to the speech with persuasive undertones.
III. Prepared remarks brief, allowing the audience to ask questions.

The ambassador was an outstanding speaker, and I would not hesitate an instant to go see him speak again

Monday, January 12, 2004
The Basic Structure of an Outline


A. Attention Statement (Humorous Anecdote, Illustrative Anecdote, Surprising Fact, Rhetorical Question, Response Question, Reference to the Occasion)
B. Purpose Statement – The Presummary of the Speech - Make it Brief, Clear, Well-Qualified (setting parameters)


I. Main Heading
A. Supporting Information
B. Supporting Information

II. Main Heading
A. Supporting Information
B. Supporting Information

Limit Main Headings to 5 or 6. Make them Generalizations. Make sure they are phrased so that they are easily recognized during the speech.

Main Heading Patterns:

Topical, Problem-Solution, Chronological, Spatial

Supporting Information:

Definition of Terms, Specific Instances, Statistical Data, Testimonial Evidence, Explanation

Transitions – Phrases that lead your audience to the next idea


A. Summary Statement – Without recapitulating the speech, the summary can end with a summary of the general ideas
B. Reinforcement of Thesis – Paraphrasing the thesis can reinforce the main idea, especially in short speeches

A Quotation can be an effective way to end a speech.

Tuesday, December 23, 2003
The Audience’s Bill of Rights

We, the people of the audience, in order to form a more perfect speaking environment, establish clarity, ensure attention and interest, provide common understanding, promote communication, and secure the blessings of reason and logic for ourselves and our fellow listeners, do ordain and establish this Bill of Rights for the Public Forums of the United States,

Article I

No speaker shall come to the podium unprepared. The speaker shall have given thought to the issue and shall be equipped with notes and visual aids required.

Article II

The information contained in the speech shall be significant and useful. No excessive trivialities shall prevail on the podium.

Article III

The speaker shall tell the truth and nothing but the truth, and shall not intentionally deceive the audience by omitting necessary information.

Article IV

The speaker shall be punctual and not unnecessarily delay the audience. The speech shall begin and end on time.

Article V

The speaker shall articulate clearly and speak in a voice loud enough for all to hear. Attention shall be given even to those in the back of the room.

Article VI

The speaker shall be courteous to the audience at all times during the main address and during the question period.

The Speaker’s Rights

In accordance with this Bill, the speaker’s rights shall not be abridged by the audience. Members of the audience shall not heckle or create distractions that interfere with the speaker’s thoughts. The audience shall listen attentively even though they might disagree with the speaker’s viewpoint. They shall participate during the question period with directness and brevity. They shall not make speeches of their own from the floor.

Friday, December 12, 2003
Welcome Back!

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